Glaucoma can be defined as a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball, causing loss of eye vision. Glaucoma is an eye disease that damages the optic nerve in the retina (it is also known as cranial nerve11, it is located at the back of the eye). The optic nerve from each pair of eyes carries visual information from the retina to the brain.
Cause of glaucoma
Glaucoma is caused due to build-up of abnormal high pressure in the eye. Our eye ball is filled with aqueous humour (a fluid). This fluid flows out of the eye through passages in our cornea and iris. If these passages are blocked, the pressure builds up in the eye, damaging the optic nerve, leading to lose of vision.
How glaucoma does takes place?
The reason for this condition is still not clear, it could be due to injury to the optic nerve hereditary, growth of new blood vessels growing inside the eye which disrupts the flow of fluid outside, uveitis, eye surgery gone wrong, frequent use of eye liquids, due to age and other medical history like diabetes, myopia (short sightedness) hypermetropia or hyperopia (long sightedness).
Glaucoma is of many types but there are two main types-
- open angle glaucoma
- angle closure glaucoma
Open angle glaucoma- It is one of the most common type of glaucoma, most people with open angle Glaucoma do not show any immediate symptoms because the visionis clear until the last stage. That is why it is very important to check your eyes regularly. In open angle glaucoma the eye’s drainage canals are gradually blocked, causing internal eye pressure, ultimately damaging the optic nerve. If open angle glaucoma is not diagnosed timely, it leads to vision loss. If it is treated at the initial stages it responds well to the medicationand treatment given.
Angle –closure glaucoma– Angle closure glaucoma occurs when the iris of the eye is pushed or pulled forward. This causes blockage of the drainage channel for the aqueous humor(fluid) in the eye. When this fluid is not drained properly out of the eye.It leads to the high intraocular pressure, this leads to sudden outburst and the fluid flows continually out of the normal eye, and it is not the tears of the eye, but abnormal watery substances. In this disease the symptoms are experienced suddenly like eye pain, vomiting, headache, blurred vision, profuse tearing,
A person with angle – closure symptoms must visit anopthalmologist immediately to prevent optic nerve damage and blindness.
Glaucoma can be treated with
- Eye drops
- laser surgery
- Argon laser, trabeculoplasty ( ALT) for open angle glaucoma.
- Laser peripheral iridotomy ( LPT) for angle closure glaucoma
- Traditional surgery
- Drainage implant surgery
- some more latest surgeries are available to rectify this disease
Glaucoma can be treated successfully if detected at early stages and save vision.