It is a pigmentation disorder, which is melanocytes in the skin which is destroyed. It results in white patch appeared on different part of skin. The pigment factor that cause out skin to be in colour is Melanin. And Vitiligo, destruct the pigment forming factor, called melanocytes, to produce it anymore.
Although scientist and doctors are still unable to fine its cause, but many of them speculate that it could be subject’s immune system destroys the cell. Some doctors even come up with hereditary theory suggesting that it is genetic coding fault passed from generation to generations. Vitiligo is universal in occurrence and patient can be from any race or from any demography. But apparently, those patients who have dark skin are more noticeable.
Those patient with certain autoimmune diseases (such as hyperthyroidism) are more likely to have vilitigo then those who don’t have. So be whatever reason it may be, because it is a skin deficiency, it cause more emotional distress and psychological problems.
With extensive research on the treatment for vitiligo, modern medical science comes up with some medical cures, as following.
Topical therapy: Which include using ointment on the problematic area or your skin, under medical supervision.
Light treatment: Exclaimer laser treatment which is widely use to vilitigo. Although results are subjective and temporary in most cases!
Psoralen photochemotherapy: Drug that react with UV light, cause skin to darken. It can be either be given orally or applying directly on the skin. Patient is supposed to take extra care during the treatment.
Depigmentation: Basically doctors fade rest of the skin, till the point it matches with skin that is already faded. In most cases, patient that are diagnosed with vilitigo on half of their body, they are suggested to go through depigmentation treatment.
Autologous skin grafts: Surgically removing skin from one part and applying to another part.
Autologous skin grafts: In this procedure doctors create blister on skin and then top of the blisters skin is then applied to the depigmented area.
Micropigmentation (tattooing): Implanting pigments into the skin with special surgical tool.
Autologous melanocyte transplants: It is more of a lab experiement, where doctors take some samples from your skin and grow melenocytes.
Although modern science have variety of treatment and we have plenty of options to explore. So consult your dermatologist.